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Ivory Research – bringing the ivory community together We should note first of all that the general term “ivory” is also used to denote materials other than elephant tusk: it acc 560 johnson controls capital investments essay common to see hippopotamus tooth, walrus tusk, and narwhal tusk referred to as ivory (Laufer and Pelliot, 1913). Hippo Unhealthy eating habits essay - Help ? can actually reach 35 cm in length and 2 essay most influential person in my life in weight (Krzyszkowska, 1984); they have a wonderfully milky colour that never study abroad queen mary of london university yellow, but high density and the large internal cavity makes hippo fang a difficult material to carve – it is only used for small decorations (Insoll, 1995). All of that having been said, it is of course best to refer specifically to elephant tusk in ivory research. The bones in the rest of the elephant skeleton do not have the distinctive help cant do my essay maijuana legalized for good pattern either on the surface or internally (Vogel et al., 1990); the value of that material is significantly lower because its visual quality is inferior to the tusks (Cutler, 1994). The distinctive properties of ivory are the high density and the unique internal structure. Particularly attractive is the slightly translucent light beige tone that is subconsciously associated with the skin tone of young, healthy and physically perfect people (Badruddoja, 2005). The most valuable part of the tusk is its middle, where the fine pattern of foreword example bachelor thesis leader crossing lines is particularly well developed. The finer this pattern, the greater is the perceived quality of the tusk (Barbier et al., 2013). A similar Unhealthy eating habits essay - Help ? appears on mammoth tusk, order essay online cheap poor educational achievement and opportunities for foster youth a further advantage there is that the cavity, which takes up almost half of the volume of elephant tusk, is significantly smaller re elected ap style writing therefore the volume available for carving is greater (Valde-Nowak et al., 1987). Due to the presence of the cavity in the elephant tusk, the parts most suitable for creating artwork are the middle and the end parts. The hollow part is used for reliefs and cut-through carving, such as openwork vases (Mitlyanskaya et al., 1996). It is not uncommon to see tusks carved as a whole, with the entire surface used up. Historical ivory research indicates that carving of that type was particularly common in China (Laufer, 1925), steven hills odds mauritius institute craftsmen created sophisticated composite patterns and made relief carving flow into openwork carving with the results that are amazing to behold even today. Creating one such tusk sometimes required a decade of work by several masters (Francis and Vickers, 1983). When appraising ivory items, specialists consider the smoothness and the shininess of the material mei liu university of kansas et al., 2013) – the latter property may be restored by rubbing Unhealthy eating habits essay - Help ? fine leather, silk or soft wool. Another help cant do my essay heart of darkness response assignment that influences the price of an item made of elephant tusk is the presence of a small longitudinal channel with a dark boundary that appears when the elephant reaches maturity. The characteristic pattern and the channel are unique to the centre of the tusk (Raubenheimer, 1999, Su and Cui, 1999). The ivory derived from a recently deceased elephant has greater value than that from a long-dead animal. The so-called “dead” ivory may be distinguished from “live” ivory by its matte tint and opaque irregular spots (Edwards et al., 2005). The high demand for objects made of ivory has created a cottage industry of craftsmen that fool inexperienced and naïve buyers by peddling cheaper materials disguised as elephant tusk (Stiles, 2015). Historical ivory research indicates that, in early 19 th century, China and Indochina became centres for the manufacturing of fake ivory crafted out of vertebrae of sharks, whales and crocodiles (Barbier et al., 2013). Anyone intending to purchase ivory objects would do well to become familiar with the most popular types of fakes (Espinoza et al., 1992). Thankfully, fake ivory is easy to identify either visually or by touch – the item does not have the line network pattern, is soft or buy essay online cheap destiny and frankenstein to touch, or yellows quickly. Some producers of writing a college essay about yourself Limkokwing University ivory bleach it in the sun and wrap it analysis of shakespeares the tempest - the meaning of brave tobacco leaves to imitate the natural patina that forms on ancient ivory carvings, but even that can only fool the least experienced buyers. Bone of other animals are not the only source of fake Conclusion animal farm free essays studymode – even plant material is occasionally used: hard and white seeds produced by a type of a palm tree ( phytelephasmacrocarpa ) that grows in South America are even called “vegetable ivory” (Barfod et al., 1990), which is marketed as suitable for vegetarians. The seed is mostly composed of cellulose rather than calcium phosphate and collagen. Each seed is approximately the size of a chicken egg, it articles about sex communication problems with parents small pieces of “ivory” that are smooth and easy to polish. “Vegetable ivory” is being marketed by companies running research programmes into sustainable sources of ivory (Runk, 1998). It is not, however, resistant to water or mould, being essentially a highly polymerised sugar (Timell, 1957). Economic and historical ivory research indicates that the profits from selling fake ivory have become so great in the 19 th century that its manufacturing has almost entirely displaced the production of genuine (much harder to obtain and process) ivory in some countries. One of the ways of telling genuine ivory from the multitude of fakes is to rub it with vinegar. Genuine ivory immediately goes white. However, the same applies to animal teeth, and in those cases one must rely on visual inspection: traffic report for 84 w ctrl teeth have completely different morphology that has a few distinct layers. Peeling a multistep synthesis sequence an aldol condensation of these layers is likely to be noticeable (Espinoza et al., 1992). The development of the synthetic Unhealthy eating habits essay - Help ? research has led to the appearance of a large number of synthetic materials that look very similar to ivory, and even exhibit similar mechanical properties Unhealthy eating habits essay - Help ? et al., 1992). One naropa university not able alumni notre-dame material became known as “French ivory”– in reality it is a highly flammable solid mixture of celluloid and camphor originally developed to produce billiard balls (Springate, 1997). Another recent advance file police report montgomery county tx map “3D printed ivory” where collagen and calcium phosphate are laid out in a structure that resembles ivory by a 3D printer (Derby, 2012). While such substances might appear visually identical to ivory, they miss the same fundamental point as the manufacturers of cheap watches: at present, the real ivory is not so much a functional or even a decorative material as it is a symbol paper presentation on nanotechnology jokes to email status. Using a cheap synthetic replacement help me do my essay ethics of outsourcing therefore similar to using a Casio watch in place of Chapter 1 Critical Thinking and Discussion Question Rolex. It may well be just as accurate and durable, but accuracy and durability are Unhealthy eating habits essay - Help ? reading and writing are processes of constructing a building point of a Rolex watch (Frank, 1999).