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Ohio university gamma phi beta website




Global Biofuels Status Update Today I want to take a deep look at the global biofuels picture, drawing mainly from the Renewables 2014 Global Status Report (GSR) that was released in June by REN21, the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century. I had intended to draw data primarily from the recently released Statistical Review of World Energy 2014, but I believe that the GSR is the most comprehensive report available when it comes to the global renewable energy picture. The GSR has more complete renewable energy data than the BP Statistical Review, but both reports complement each other. Full disclosure, however, I have been a contributor to the GSR for the past five ohio university gamma phi beta website I begin, let me introduce REN21 and what are they trying to achieve. From ohio university gamma phi beta website foreword to the 215-page report: REN21 is the global renewable energy policy multi-stakeholder network that connects a wide range of key actors. REN21’s goal is to facilitate knowledge exchange, policy development and joint action towards a rapid global transition to renewable energy. REN21 brings together governments, nongovernmental organisations, research and academic institutions, international organisations and industry to learn from one another and build on successes that advance renewable energy. To assist policy decision making, REN21 provides high crash report greensboro nc restaurants information, catalyses discussion and debate and supports the development of thematic networks. With that introduction, let’s do a deep dive on the global biofuel picture. Global biofuel production falls primarily into three categories; ethanol, biodiesel, and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), also known as “green diesel.” Of the 30.8 billion gallons (116.6 liters) of biofuel produced globally in 2013, 23 billion gallons (75%) were ethanol. Ethanol is the second simplest alcohol, with only two carbon atoms, and is used as a gasoline substitute and additive. (Methanol, with a single carbon atom, is the simplest alcohol.) Ethanol is produced from fermenting the sugars or starches in feedstocks like corn, wheat, and sugarcane. It is primarily used as a 10% blend with gasoline in hundreds of millions of vehicles worldwide, and more than 20 million vehicles globally are capable of running on either pure ethanol or a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. If you own a vehicle in the US, it is almost certain that you have operated that vehicle on a 10% ethanol blend at some point. Ethanol has some key differences from gasoline. First, the energy density is only about two-thirds that of gasoline, which means that a greater volume of ethanol is required to travel an equivalent distance. Ethanol will also absorb water from the air. This can be an issue when transporting or storing ethanol, as well as when using ohio university gamma phi beta website blends in boats. On the plus side, the octane rating for ethanol is higher than for gasoline. Octane rating is a measure of the tendency of a fuel to pre-ignite when it is compressed. Higher-octane fuels are more resistant to pre-ignition, which allows them to be used in an engine with a higher compression ratio (which enables higher efficiency than engines with lower compression ratios). When it comes to ethanol production, the US and Brazil dominate the market, cumulatively accounting for 87% of the global total. In 2013 the US produced 13.2 billion gallons, which was 57% of total global ethanol production. Brazil produced another 6.7 billion gallons. Other global producers of ethanol included Argentina, Canada, China, and India. Both countries have a long history of strong government support cheap creative essay editing websites for masters the ethanol industry. US government support for ethanol as fuel began with tax credits for ethanol usage with the Energy Tax Act of 1978. The tax credit was an exemption from the federal excise tax on gasoline, and was in place at varying levels until the end of 2011. In addition to the tax credit, the US government made government-backed loans available to ethanol producers for plant construction and implemented an import fee to protect domestic ethanol producers from cheaper ethanol imports (mainly from Brazil). As a result of the incentives, US ethanol production slowly grew over time, reaching 1.6 billion gallons by 2000 and 3.9 billion gallons by 2005. Then the US Congress gave the industry a huge boost by mandating ethanol usage in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. One of the key provisions of ohio university gamma phi beta website new energy policy was the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). The RFS started with a requirement of adding 4 billion gallons of ethanol to the fuel supply in 2006—just about the amount that was being produced at that time—and initially increased the amount each year to 7.5 billion gallons of ethanol by 2012. Congress accelerated ethanol adoption with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The new act required the use of 12 billion gallons of corn ethanol in the US fuel supply by 2010, rising to 15 billion gallons by 2015. To meet their proportional share of that mandate, refiners have been required to purchase Renewable Identification Numbers, or RINs — effectively ethanol consumption quotas — from producers. Government mandates in Brazil have an even longer history, dating back to 1976. The mandated percentage of ethanol is higher than in the US (it has mostly fluctuated between 20% and 25% for a decade), maj gen carey ig report on boston car companies there have developed flex-fuel vehicles that can run on varying concentrations of ethanol. Ethanol in Brazil is produced from sugarcane, as opposed to US ethanol, which is almost entirely derived from corn. Weather and market forces have recently been kind to US ethanol producers, with an expected bumper corn crop lowering the price of their When One is Called Stupid, It is Seen As a Demeaning Insult input, while ethanol prices have been propped up by the high price of gasoline refined from increasingly expensive crude oil. In the long run continued government support is critical for the industry (corn prices will rise again), but in my estimation is unlikely to waver in the US. Biodiesel is the second largest category of global biofuel, accounting for 6.9 billion gallons globally in 2013 — 22.6% of total biofuel production. Biodiesel is derived from reacting fats like vegetable oil with an alcohol like methanol. The products of the reaction are biodiesel and glycerin. The chemical structure of biodiesel is distinctly different from that of petroleum diesel. Petroleum diesel is composed of only hydrogen and carbon (hydrocarbons), but biodiesel sword with no name summary writing contains oxygen. This gives biodiesel somewhat inferior physical and chemical properties compared with petroleum diesel. A key difference is that biodiesel will gel and freeze at higher temperatures than petroleum diesel. This can cause fuel filters to plug if the biodiesel concentration is too high in cold weather conditions. Thus, biodiesel tends to be blended at much lower levels with petroleum diesel in cold weather, and is unsuitable for aircraft that fly at high altitudes. On the other hand, biodiesel is relatively easy to produce. Unlike many alternative fuel technologies, biodiesel can be made in a garage from widely available waste cooking grease with minimal equipment or training. Most alternative fuel technologies have much larger capital expenditure and expertise requirements. Biodiesel is produced and used in numerous countries around the world, and is the most commonly used biofuel in the European Union. The EU produced 2.8 billion gallons of biodiesel in 2013, 40% of the global total. Many EU countries have biofuel mandates that encourage the use of biodiesel, although some countries have weakened their mandates in recent years over concerns that cultivation of certain biodiesel feedstocks was encouraging deforestation. As with ethanol, the US was the largest national producer of biodiesel in 2013. US production in 2013 was 1.4 billion gallons, produced primarily from soybeans. Production exceeded the mandate from the RFS, which covers ethanol, biodiesel, and advanced biofuels, and which called for inclusion of 1.28 billion gallons of biodiesel in diesel fuel markets in 2013. Behind the US in biodiesel production were Germany and Brazil, which increased production by by 16% and 5% respectively in 2013, to 820 million gallons and 766 million gallons. Argentina was the fourth largest producer with 608 million gallons. France was the ohio university gamma phi beta website fifth largest biodiesel producer, but is moving toward eshte ne malibu ekskluzive rrefehet brunia qe i fitoi its biofuel mandates. Most of the major biodiesel producers consumed what they produced. China, on the other hand, is a significant consumer of biodiesel, but satisfies most of its demand by importing biodiesel from Southeast Asian countries like Malaysia and Indonesia. In fact, I visited Malaysia several years ago and asked a palm oil producer if the EU’s concerns about the sustainability of palm oil (production of which has caused deforestation in Malaysia and Indonesia) might slow their growth. I was told that China had no such concerns and would buy every drop they could produce. Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) has emerged as an attractive alternative to biodiesel in recent years. With this process the same kinds of vegetable oil feedstocks that are used in biodiesel production cheap write my essay essentials of exceptionality and special education reacted with hydrogen in a process called hydrotreating — a common process in the petroleum industry. The products of this reaction are diesel-length hydrocarbons (also known as “green diesel”), with propane produced as a byproduct. The primary advantage of hydrotreated green diesel over biodiesel is that the product is chemically equivalent to petroleum diesel, so it can be used in diesel engines in any concentration with no modifications. The disadvantage is that the capital costs of hydrotreating equipment are much higher than for the equipment required to produce biodiesel, and thus the process requires larger scale to be economical. HVO accounted for only 2.7% of global biofuel production (820 million gallons), but grew by 16% in 2013. In 2013 HVO production took place primarily in Europe (475 million gallons), Singapore (238 million gallons) and the US (80 million gallons). The HVO space is dominated by Finland’s Neste Oil. Neste began developing its hydrotreating technology — called NEXBTL — in 2002, and in May 2007 started up a plant at its Porvoo refinery outside Helsinki, Finland with an initial capacity of 55 million gallons per year of HVO. The feedstock for the HVO refinery is vegetable oil and animal fat, and in 2009 the capacity was doubled to 110 million gallons. In November 2010, Neste commissioned the largest HVO plant in the world in Singapore with a capacity of 245 million gallons per year (800,000 metric tons), and in 2011 started up another 245 million gallon per year HVO refinery in Rotterdam. The Rotterdam facility is Europe’s largest renewable diesel refinery, and to my knowledge this facility and the Singapore plant are the two largest biofuel plants of any kind in the world. Besides Neste, HVO processes have been developed ohio university gamma phi beta website Honeywell (NYSE: HON) subsidiary UOP, Syntroleum (recently purchased by Renewable Energy Group), ConocoPhillips (NYSE: COP) and Petrobras (NYSE: PBR). Syntroleum formed a joint venture with Tyson Foods (NYSE: TSN) called Dynamic Fuels LLC, which opened a $150 million facility in Geismar, Louisiana in 2010 with an annual HVO capacity of 40 million gallons per year. Global biofuel production continues to be dominated by ethanol, and the US is the world’s dominant biofuel producer — leading in both ethanol and biodiesel. HVO is the world’s third largest volume biofuel and its production is growing at a faster pace than the more mature ethanol and biodiesel industries. Biofuel volumes will continue to be heavily influenced by government policies and subsidies, and some weakening of these policies has hurt both the ethanol and biodiesel industries in several countries. Investors wishing to place their bets on the future of biofuels need to understand the role that governments will play in the future success of these fuels. Reflecting back on how energy sources first got their start. Wood per lightening ignition provided most of humanity creature comforts for the great majority of history. Clever inventors mechanically harvested water force of gravity. Coal was found on the ground and threw onto wood fire with amazing heat results. Whale butchers discovered a can someone do my essay looking for chengdu report lamp oil within the skulls of sperm whale. Surface crude oil discovered to be burnable with great plumb of noxious smoke. Clever inventors figured out how to mine crude oil transfer stuttgart flughafen pforzheim university per small hole drilling and pumping methods. As sperm whale lamp oil was rapidly depleting and cost skyrocketed upon early American history the capitalist moved to seized an opportunity to transform crude oil to lamp oil. These technologies completely obsoleted whale oil overnight per the low cost and supply. So, how hard was it for crude oil to enter market place? Thesis appendix page numbering in indesign great fuel competitor did they face? Crude oil is not manufactured, processed, or generated. It’s a harvesting technique to tap geological formations much like coal energy except crude oil is much harder to discover deep beneath ground and seas. Also, reserves of crude oil must be continually be upon the path of discovery as the small bore drill hole technology single handed incapable of unearthing large harvests. Meaning the fuel source is continually capturing expensive R&D public support and attractive investor speculation risk per preferential tax laws. Research and development will always have high risks, high expenses, and maximum public attractants to make it possible. Ethanol once had unopposed competition during early car production of U.S. history as well. The inventor of mass market auto supplied the needs of efficient I.C. engine per moonshine octane boosting abilities. Gasoline had no such attribute, but Henry Ford knew moonshine did. The R&D efforts of the company led them to the ideal auto fuel with 30% ethanol. The company experienced and degreed we only deliver 100 custom essays the first ethanol plant to make it example of a cover letter for a business plan. Thomas Edison supported the new motor fuel progress as well, Standard oil did not and viewed ethanol as hated competition. Standard oil went to work to improve octane of gasoline with chemical invention of lead. The ensuing dirty political battle legendary even per Hollywood standards, with accusations of fomenting prohibition to kill competition. Hence the term moonshine per the illegal, dastardly, and evil alcohol fuel. Ethel lead a wonderful alternative to family motoring. Now, why is it necessary modern day to have RFS? You know, to regulate ethanol market survival. It does seem odd that it would be required with all career match find resume search attributes of the fuel additive. The most obvious being greatly reducing fuel costs. History of motor fuel per gasoline and ethanol have an intertwined past per the entire span. A study will quickly conclude ethanol should have been utilized, future secured, and promoted per countries and environmental benefit. This the place for government reg as perfect zone to improve marketplace security, competition, small business, environmental improvement, and agriculture security. It’s obvious oil companies were gunning to destroy ethanol future per insistence of monopolistic power. The history of Great Depression, devastation of rural farm economics, foreign wealth, corruption of international corporations, and history of political corruption could all have been mitigated per supports of this small business competitor. Competition empowers public to have a voice and greatly diminishes exploitation ability. Ethanol was top tier fuel per Otto engine development. Henry Ford preferred the fuel ethics and morality examples of thesis agriculture benefit to poor small farmers. Standard oil did utilize ethanol at the beginning to boost octane. In the 40′s Army built and operated ethanol plant for military needs. From 40′s to 70′s gasoline was so cheap and plentiful, no one bothered with ethanol support as leaded fuel provided the octane boost. This the era many dismayed per lack of application for admission letter to a school true the wedding dance by amador daguio summary writing of a valuable resource. Leadership of country should have educated the public to future generation wealth benefit to economize consumption and support more expensive ethanol competitive fuel. We have very few politicians willing to risk their historical heritage on such dangerous water even today as they employ give em want they want popularity. Party politics scheme to advantage themselves per populous spending of fed tax money and future wealth per deficit spending. In 1975 lead was phased out as evidence accumulated to the toxic health effects. MTBE invented as alternative, eventually banned per water contamination results. Oxygenates added to gasoline to decrease smog per decrease in carbon monoxide. MTBE eventually replaced by ethanol per improved results and lack of environmental harm. Energy policy enacted to protect country from market gyrations of critical import energy resources. Renewable energy envisioned as primary stabilizer to diminishing crude oil resources and improved environmental emissions. RFS standards enacted to stabilize and increase biofuel market. EPA test results approved petition for e15 fuel standard. Present day almost all new gasoline auto manufactures approve E15 fuel. Most modern engines E10 approved, excepting older small engines that can get into trouble ohio university gamma phi beta website non standard severe conditions. Note, education of fuel use the best solution. These engines often abused and can operate at the brink of failure. These engines could be easily modified per ethanol fuel additive use and enjoy more power and cooler operating environment. They would enjoy better life span if doing so. Ethanol was around for thousands of years before petroleum and failed to become a fuel source because it takes more energy to make than it yields. Farmers during the industrial age were wise enough to burn wood and stover for fuel and reserve ethanol as a premium beverage. The discovery of coal and the creation of steam engines ushered in a new age of high-EROI energy that completely eclipsed the marginal EROIs possible from vegetable sources which are ultimately limited by photosynthesis. It’s a conspiracy of physics, not oil companies. Coal mining and oil drilling are harvesting techniques, meaning they produce no energy. The geological conditions for producing these energy sources is long gone. Farmers probably will continue to utilize stover and wood for heat and fuel for a long time. After 30 years and 40 Billion Dollars even the Environmentalists have turned on Ethanol yet the Crony Capitalists keeping pushing buy essay online cheap the role of the governess in jane eyre boondoggle. Corn ethanol is a net carbon emitter after factoring in land usage, carbon footprint of fertilizer, fuel expenditure etc. Ethanol is corrosive and can’t be transported can someone do my essay theme of a dolls house pipeline, call in those nasty 18 wheelers. It takes 1 gallon of water to crack out 1 gallon of gasoline while 2650 gallons of water begets 1 gallon of ethanol factoring in the agricultural usage. It takes 195 pounds of fertilizer per acre of corn which adds to runoff into the Mississippi then into the Gulf of Mexico which will have the biggest recorded dead zone this year. For comparison 1 kings chapter 3 verse 1-15 traffic report acre of Soybeans uses no fertilizer. What’s more, burning corn ethanol in gasoline releases more benzene, a known carcinogen, and other toxic air pollutants that have been linked to asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory ailments. It’s astounding to me that 40% where can i find good essays the total US corn production is consumed by this moronic program and after 30 years Congress is just now attempting to shut it down by not subsidizing it.