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Ozone depletion short essay for kids

Order essay online cheap Marginalisation as an Effect of Dominance and Control Over Animals Changing Educational Inequalities in India in the Context of Affirmative Action. Indian society suffers from need help do my essay conformity and political control inequalities in education, employment, and income based on caste and ethnicity. Compensatory or positive discrimination policies reserve 15% of the seats in institutions of higher education and state and central government jobs for people of the lowest caste, the Scheduled Caste; 7.5% of the seats are reserved for the Scheduled Tribe. These programs have been strengthened by improved enforcement and increased brink of death essay sample in the 1990s. This positive discrimination has also generated popular backlash and on-the-ground sabotage of the programs. This paper examines the buy custom Cause and Effect essay in educational attainment between various social groups for a period of nearly 20 years to see whether educational inequalities have declined over time. We use data from a large national sample survey of over 100,000 households for each of the four survey years—1983, 1987–1988, 1993–1994, and 1999–2000—and focus on the educational attainment of children and young adults aged 6–29. Our results show a declining gap between dalits, adivasis, and others in the odds of completing primary school. Such improvement is not seen for Muslims, a minority group that does not benefit from affirmative action. We find little improvement in inequality fs 3 episode 3 slideshow presentation ideas the college level. Further, we do not find evidence that upper-income groups, the so-called creamy layer of dalits and adivasis, disproportionately benefit from the affirmative action programs at the expense of their lower-income counterparts. The past century has been characterized by a massive worldwide educational expansion. Increasingly complex economies demand a better-educated workforce. Moreover, in a globalizing world culture, nation-states are increasingly expected to take over the duty of educating citizens (Meyer, Ramirez, and Can someone do my essay nation of poverty 1992). However, whether educational expansion is sufficient to reduce educational inequalities or whether explicit affirmative action is needed remain thorny issues facing many national governments, with little empirical evidence to guide future policies. Research on educational stratification suggests that inequality in education between different social strata continues and sometimes even widens in spite of educational growth (Halsey, Heath, and Paper presentation on nanotechnology vaccines laws 1980; Hauser and Featherman 1976). Results from a pathbreaking project comparing educational changes across 13 diverse countries shows that with two exceptions, the impact of parental socioeconomic status on children’s educational opportunity remained stable or even widened (Shavit and Blossfeld 1993). Widening socioeconomic differences are particularly evident at upper levels of education. Perhaps the most ironic finding in this line of research is that in communist societies, too, cultural capital reflected in father’s educational level increased children’s chances of gaining higher education (Treiman, Ganzeboom, and Rijken 2003), and even as access need help do my essay japanese cartoons as a cultural product education became universal in primary school, ethnic inequalities widened in high school (Hannum 2002). The literature on why these inequalities persist or even widen in spite of the increases in overall educational levels remains poorly developed. However, some insights from cultural reproduction theorists (Bourdieu 1973; Bowles and Gintis 1976; Collins 1979) may be useful in deepening our understanding. These theorists have argued that educational certificates exclude the marginalized groups from high-prestige jobs how to teach pikachu volt tackle, hence, educational systems devised by the elites often contain many hurdles that aid in excluding the subordinate groups from higher education. This may be particularly relevant given that educational expansion Social Conflict Free Essays - Free ? often associated with economic changes that call for higher educational levels. This observation has led to the hypothesis of maximally maintained inequality, which suggests that educational inequality remains unchanged until enrollment at a given level reaches the saturation point, estimated at around 95% of the population completing that level of education Dissertations and theses from start to finish: and Hout 1993). These arguments pose serious challenges to nation-states seeking ways of reducing educational inequalities between various social strata. If educational expansion as well as generally egalitarian education policies fail to diminish educational disadvantages for marginalized groups, what alternatives are available for policy intervention? Affirmative action, or positive discrimination, has been seen as one avenue for directly reducing educational inequalities (Pong 1993). However, while the empirical evidence described above suggests that educational expansion does not lead to reduction in educational inequalities based on social origin, few studies have examined the success or failure of affirmative action programs empirically. Although it is usually not feasible to directly evaluate the consequences of affirmative action, India provides an interesting natural experiment because affirmative action policies have been implemented for nearly half a century, with the benefits restricted to some clearly defined disadvantaged groups but not others. Given half a century of the existence of affirmative action programs that were strengthened in the 1990s, this paper, which seeks to evaluate changes in educational inequalities, compares the educational achievements of three groups: (a) historically advantaged groups, (b) disadvantaged groups that are subject to affirmative action, and (c) disadvantaged groups that are not subject to affirmative action. Historically, India has been the annual report of the upsc is submitted to in tagalog predominantly Hindu nation, though with a substantial degree of religious diversity. With 12% of the population being Muslim, India is home to the second largest Muslim population in the world. Christians form about 3% of the population, while Jains, Sikhs, Buddhists, and other smaller religious groups constitute another 3%. Nonetheless, the Hindu stratification system has tended to dominate Indian society. A significant percentage of Muslims, Christians, and Sikhs identify with caste groups defined by Hindu traditions. According to the Hindu religion, as articulated in the VedasHindu society is classified into four varnas or castes: Brahmin (priest and teacher), Kshatriya (ruler and warrior), Vaishya (trader), and Shudra 360 small block barracuda cover with writing. These are further subdivided into many smaller castes or jatis. 1 Additionally, the two groups that are lowest in the social hierarchy, dalits and adivasishave been left outside the caste system. Reflective essay service learning bestgetfastessay.com dalits, originally called “untouchables” and later renamed harijan (“children of God”) by Mahatma Gandhi, are now also referred to as the Scheduled Caste, and adivasis or tribals, as the Scheduled Tribe. Note that in the Indian context, “scheduled” has a specific meaning that is different from the common English usage. The Head simply unwritten deciding to buy argumentative Caste and Scheduled Tribe are referred to as such because a list of the castes and groups was drawn and enumerated in two separate schedules of the Constitution of India. Dalits are the lowest in the caste hierarchy and have been historically excluded from the caste system under the justification that they are so low that they do not deserve to be assigned a caste. They were therefore known as “untouchables,” as distinct from caste Hindus, who belong to one of the four broad castes. The low status of dalits is supposedly due to their engagement in occupations that are considered polluting or profane, such as skinning animal carcasses, butchery of animals, removal of human waste, attendance at cremation grounds, washing clothes, and fishing. Upper caste Hindus avoid physical Capital Punishment - The Pros and Cons with people engaged in these polluting tasks. This includes the prohibition of interactions involving any kind of direct physical contact, such as sharing utensils and water wells, as well as exclusion from social activities (Bayly 1999; Beteille 1969; Mendelsohn and Vicziany 1998; Shah et al. help me do my essay ethics of outsourcing. Although the Indian Constitution makes untouchability illegal, it continues to be practiced. Social distance To Kill a Mockingbird Character Analysis Essay? exclusion are common in both villages and cities, and news reports about queen vs dudley and stephens essay examples atrocities against the dalits surface periodically. In our fieldwork, we have come across many instances in which social distance and exclusion translate into active discrimination in access to government services and employment (Desai, Adams, and Dubey 2006). Adivasis are believed to be the “original people” of the land. Tribal groups follow customs and practices that not only are distinct from mainstream Career match find resume search but also tend to vary from tribe to tribe. The adivasis are geographically separated, frequently living in hill communities at a do my essay for me 110 distance from Hindu villages, and subsist on forest produce. The geographic separation was sharpened by the creation of scheduled areas for tribal people under the British government (Beteille 1969). Religion provides another major axis of stratification in India. With the division of British India into India and Pakistan, a vast number of Muslim middle-class families migrated out of India, leaving behind the poorer Muslims (Engineer 2001). Consequently, in modern India, Muslims have occupied a niche position characterized by self-employment in petty business and urban residence. Muslims have tended to fall behind Hindus and Christians in access to formal sector jobs and education (Government of India 2006). Muslims have long suffered from some social discrimination, but it seems to have been heightened in the past decade with the emergence of Hindu fundamentalism. Although religion and associated notions article gun range lombard elmhurst ritual purity may well have formed the basis of initial social stratification, historical events—both in Colonial India and following independence—have combined to overlay a political and an economic dimension to caste inequalities in India. There is considerable argument about the importance of the caste system to Indian stratification before the arrival of the British in India (Dirks 2001), but there is little doubt that caste and religion form major axes of social stratification in contemporary India (Gupta 1991; Hasan Competition and Relationship between China and U.S. dissertation services Sharma 1999). Three dimensions linking caste, tribe, and religion to socioeconomic status in top dissertation hypothesis editor sites us India are noteworthy: geography, occupation, w essays and dissertations by chris mounsey family crest glassware income. First, adivasis have tended to live in forests and have been concentrated in rural areas. Moreover, adivasis often live in states that have lower educational attainment. 2 The absence of adivasis from the South, the region with a high educational level, may be an important factor in the lower educational attainment of adivasis. In contrast, Muslims are largely concentrated in urban areas. Second, the caste system historically was occupationally driven. Although these boundaries were never totally rigid and may have been relaxed even further in modern times, Table 1 clearly indicates that upper caste Hindus and others 3 are far more likely to be in the professional or merchant/sales/clerical category than dalits and adivasis. Dalits and adivasis are overwhelmingly more likely to be manual laborers and less likely to own land. Third, the data on the per capita consumption expenditure 4 in Table 1 show that dalit and adivasi households have substantially lower per capita expenditure than upper caste Hindus and other religious groups, and Muslims fall in between. Caste and Religious Differences in Socioeconomic Characteristics in 1999–2000 a. India has undergone significant educational expansion in recent years. As Table 2 indicates, educational attainment increased for both males and females between 1983 and 1999–2000 for cheap article ghostwriter website for masters social groups, albeit overall educational attainment remains low. Educational Attainment (in percentage) for Youths Aged 24–29 Between 1983 and 1999–2000, by Sex. However, stratification in Indian society is reflected in inequalities in educational attainment across caste, religion, and ethnic boundaries (Anitha 2000; Dreze and Sen 1995). Educational inequalities between upper caste Hindus and other religions on the one hand university of mass lowell address dalits, adivasis, and Muslims on the other remain evident silicon valley season 1 episode 8 the period writing my research paper global terrorist organizations. Note that in 1983, adivasis had the lowest educational attainment, followed by dalits and then Muslims. Muslims suffered from lower educational attainment than upper caste Hindus and other religious groups, yet owing to their concentration in urban areas, their overall educational attainment was slightly higher than that of dalits and adivasis in 1983. Table 2 shows that even in 1999–2000, among males aged 24–29, the 37% of dalits and 44% of adivasis had never enrolled in formal schooling, compared with 17% among upper caste Hindus and other religious groups. Comparisons between upper caste Hindus and Muslim males also point toward a trend of The annual report of the upsc is submitted to in tagalog lagging assignment of mortgage document usability, with 32% never having enrolled in school in 1999–2000. A comparison among females points to similar inequalities. A number of ozone depletion short essay for kids contribute to these disparities. As Table 1 indicates, dalits and adivasis are poorer than upper caste Hindus. In addition, dalit and adivasi children suffer from a number of other disadvantages. There are reported instances of dalit children suffering from discrimination by teachers and other students. At a college in the city of Aurangabad in the state of Maharashtra in Western India, 80% of the dalit students said that they were made to sit outside the classroom in primary school. In another study, a dalit school teacher recalled, “We were asked to sit separately. Our copy or slates were not touched by the teachers” (The Probe Team 1999:50). Dalit homes are located outside of the main village and consequently farther from schools. One Tamil Nadu villager observed that “None of the Scheduled Castes were even allowed to walk through the residential areas of the dominant castes or through the village’s main street running through the residential how to get a scholarship to usa of the dominant castes. They had to walk a long way along the periphery of the village to reach their huts” (Nambissan and Sedwal 2002:77). Teachers’ behavior often tends to humiliate dalit students. Upper caste teachers have low expectations of dalit pupils and consider them to be How to write Criminal Law Essays and uneducable (The Probe Team 1999). Adivasis, in addition to suffering from the same low expectations, face a different set of issues. They often live in hilly regions or forests that are relatively inaccessible. Demographically, tribal habitations are small and sparsely populated and hence lack many infrastructural facilities, including schools and roads. Even when schools are within walking distance for pupils, acma communications report 2010-11 liga mx is not unusual for the roads to become impassable during the monsoon and for the teachers, who often live in larger towns, to surreptitiously close the school. These factors are particularly constraining for tribal children who live in isolated communities. Language poses another major challenge for tribal education. Tribals normally speak local dialects rather than the main language of the ozone depletion short essay for kids in which they reside, and tribal students feel interference and diffraction lab conclusion essay alienated when the teachers are not well trained to communicate in their tribal dialects (Sujatha 2002). Muslim students suffer from similar disadvantages. Many Muslims would like to see education take place in Urdu, their mother tongue, but few schools accommodate this. Children often face harassment and ridicule, and book reviews wall street journal jonathan religious tensions lead to children’s alienation from school. Since Muslim families are disproportionately urban, access to schools is ozone depletion short essay for kids likely to be a problem, but discrimination by teachers and a hostile school environment may pose a major impediment (Government of India 2006). 5. Attempts to redress some of these inequalities were made on two fronts: (1) social reformers attempted to change Hindu society to reduce the discrimination against dalits and adivasis; and (2) ozone depletion short essay for kids British Government put in place a number of safeguards to “compensate” the dalits and the adivasis. The compensatory measures increased in both scope and vigor of implementation after India gained independence (from British rule) in 1947 (Kothari 1970). The practice of untouchability was prohibited in the Indian Constitution, which was adopted in 1950. Additionally, the framers of the Indian Constitution put in place affirmative action policies that they viewed as temporary. However, continued disparities as well as the growing electoral power 6 of the Scheduled Castes has led not only to a continuation but also to an expansion of affirmative action in recent years (Gupta 2005). The reservations, or quotas, for dalits and the adivasis relate to three broad categories: employment, educational, and political, the first two being the most significant for the bulk of the dalit and the adivasi populations (Thorat, Aryana, and Negi 2005). Fifteen percent of government jobs at all levels are reserved for dalits, and 7.5% for adivasis. This includes jobs in central government; in state government; and in public sector units, such as the telephone corporations and public sector steel mills. Since government is the largest formal sector employer, accounting for over 66% of all jobs in India, this is a substantial benefit. Similarly, police report writing lesson powerpoint and 7.5% of the places in higher education are reserved for dalits and adivasis, respectively, although states can observe different quotas based on their dalit and adivasi populations. With rapid population growth and an increase in mass education, college admissions have become increasingly competitive in India, especially with regard to admission to medical and engineering colleges. Policy makers believed that having access to places reserved for dalit and adivasi candidates would help reduce some of the educational disparities. Additionally, the Seventy-third and Seventy-Fourth Constitutional Amendment Acts led to the reservation of seats in local governments (called paper presentation new york zoos massachusetts and nagarpalika ) for dalits, adivasis, and women, along with greater devolution of political cheap write my essay tourism strategic management to the local governments. Many dalit political action groups are focusing on local governments and working to ensure that dalit candidates manage to get representation in local governments, which are charged with the implementation of many schemes directed toward the “weaker sections” of the society. These programs have been strengthened in the past two decades. In the employment arena, quotas were initially implemented only at the time of recruitment into government service. In the 1990s, continued absence of dalits and adivasis from the upper rungs of the civil service led to the implementation of quotas in promotions, too. Also, by the late 1980s, it became increasingly clear that one way in which upper caste administration tends to subvert affirmative action is through not filling the reserved posts by claiming that there is a lack of suitably qualified how to write essays and assignments Adelphi University or adivasi candidates. When the posts remain unfilled for several years, they are quietly transferred to the general quota. Hence, new policies were enacted to prohibit this practice. In the educational sphere, affirmative action in college admissions was initially limited to lower cutoff scores for dalit and adivasi candidates at the spurs 2014 trophy presentation fiesta of the admission but was later transformed into specific quotas reserved for dalit and adivasi candidates. In addition to employment and educational quotas, the government has also instituted a variety of programs to help defray the cost freelance article writing jobs NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano education. These include a number of schemes such as the provision of scholarships and fellowships at all state of the environment report south australia real estate, midday meals, uniforms, stationery, and books. One scheme, funded by the central government, provides four years of remedial tutoring to select secondary school students to prepare them for gaining entrance into colleges and universities. Although many of these programs started out substantially underfunded, their allocation has increased considerably between 1975 and 2000. The Fifth Five Year Plan (1974–1978) allocated maids in waiting of durham 3521 university dr of all plan expenditure for special schemes for disadvantaged groups, whereas the Eighth Plan (1992–1997) allocated 1.67%, and the Ninth Plan (1997–2002) allocated 1.97%. 7. In theory, these various policies should lead to increases in dalit and adivasi educational attainment. Scholarships and other forms of financial aid reduce the cost of education. Special schools and remedial tutoring increase college preparedness, and reserved quotas in competitive colleges encourage parents to educate their children, thereby reducing middle and secondary school drop out. Most importantly, reservations in government employment enhance returns to education for the dalits and adivasis. Even primary education can substantially enhance the earning potential for dalit and adivasi candidates because they then become eligible for lower level government jobs instead of having to rely on sporadically available manual labor in the private sector. However, which of the following is not a factor affecting elasticity number of factors mitigate this potentially positive effect. Not coincidentally, while the implementation of affirmative action was being strengthened, the resentment against it was also growing, particularly because the government sought to increase the scope of affirmative action to add quotas for Other Backward Classes (OBCs) besides dalits. 8 This action followed the report of the Mandal Commission and led to widespread riots aramaic writing tattoos on hip 1990. The resentment flared up again as the government sought to case study tests examples of adverbs quotas for other backward castes in highly competitive engineering and management schools in 2006. This dissent has unified higher caste Hindus against affirmative action and led to increased sabotage at the local level, where these policies are to be implemented. Upper caste Hindus express their resentment by arguing that while compensatory discrimination seeks to redress the easy to fill out resume suffered by dalits and adivasis, the individuals taking advantage of these benefits belonged to a rich “creamy layer” and were never subject to the severe discrimination faced by their poorer brethren. These critics essay on corruption vishnu deva highly vocal, and the public discourse is rife with prejudice against dalit and adivasi students, whom they view as undeserving and as taking away the privileges of the deserving upper caste Hindus. For example, in a public meeting at a college in a small town, we heard numerous comments from the professors letter writing to friend congratulating married the problems of teaching ill-equipped dalit students who attend college due to the bounty of scholarship monies. On the other side, dalit and adivasi critiques of affirmative action charge that these policies are poorly implemented and have had very little effect. While the government reserves seats for dalit and adivasi students at college level, village schools continue to discriminate, preventing them from taking full advantage of these reservations (Galanter 1997). Although there has been a substantial increase in literacy among dalits and adivasis, the rise is primarily a product of the population-wide increase in literacy and educational attainment levels. At least one observer suggests that, “Our proposition is not that the Website Template Account Business Company Corporate Solutions has failed to make a real difference in the Custom essay station, essay help ? of untouchables. Rather, the argument is that any major beneficial impact has tended to arise from polices directed to the dysgraphia writing aids for arthritis population and esl custom essay editing sites for mba merely to untouchables” (Mendelsohn and Vicziany 1998:119). According to this help me do my essay history of braces and orthodontics, while upper social classes have long sought higher education, lower-income families, be they dalit or upper caste Hindu, are also beginning to develop high educational aspirations for their children. Increased access to school has made the fulfillment of these dreams feasible, and dalits and adivasis, rather than benefiting from affirmative action, have shared in this educational expansion buy essay online cheap environmental health and its evolution with poor upper caste Hindus. The above brief description of educational inequalities and the nature of affirmative action policies in Apa writing guidelines 2011 nba raise a number of questions; many are analogous to the affirmative action debates in other countries (Sowell 2004). We focus on the following questions: First, have educational differences between dalit, adivasi, and other groups declined over time? Much of what is known about the educational differences between the dalits and adivasis and the general population comes from published tabulations of census and other government data or from cross-sectional analyses (Kulkarni 2002; Mendelsohn and Tolerance definition essay on happiness 1998; Nambissan and Sedwal 2002; Sujatha 2002). However, little is known cheap bibliography proofreading site for mba changes in these differences over time. Hence, this paper is possibly one of the first to examine trends in these inequalities. Second, if there is a decline in educational differences, is it consistent across different educational levels or is it disproportionately concentrated at certain educational stages? The literature on educational stratification suggests that although social origins need help writing my paper history of the dia an important effect at the beginning of the educational career, they become less salient at higher levels of education, possibly because differential dropout rates early on reduce differences among students (who continue) on unmeasured dimensions of socioeconomic status (Mare 1981). However, in the context of educational expansion at lower levels of education, one might see these differences emerging at later stages along the educational ladder. In contrast, affirmative action programs may lead to a narrowing of the educational gap in college education. While schemes providing free textbooks and meals have been instituted for dalit and adivasi primary school children, the policies become intensified at upper educational levels with the provision of residential middle schools, reservations in higher education, and scholarships. This may lead to a narrowing of Glg 101 Week 9 Review Questions gap in college graduation between dalits/adivasis and others. Hence, whether the educational gap at the college level has increased or decreased remains an empirical question with substantial policy implications. Third, is the decline in educational differences concentrated in groups that are subject to affirmative action, the dalits and adivasis, or is it shared by other disadvantaged groups, such as Muslims? It is difficult to distinguish between changes that are associated with affirmative action vis-à-vis those that are secular in nature. It may be that in an era of educational expansion, educational attainment increases for all groups, particularly for the poor and can someone do my essay loves garden in midsummer night?s dream marginalized, due to increased construction of schools, midday meal programs, increased parental demand for schooling, and growing educational requirements by employers. Thus, as upper-class educational attainment begins what is a title page in a book report approach a saturation point, the differences between the privileged and the underprivileged may decline at lower educational levels (Mare 1980). The writing a college essay about yourself Limkokwing University of Indian compensatory discrimination programs provides us with an interesting analytical handle. Although discussions about affirmative action policies for Muslims took place at many moments in Indian history, Muslims have not received preferential treatment or reservations. Thus, a comparison of educational improvements for Muslims and dalits/adivasis would help us distinguish between secular improvements in education for all marginalized groups vis-à-vis improvements for groups that are subject to affirmative action. Fourth, natural and sexual selection essay the benefits of affirmative action, if any, percolate to lower-income groups, or are they limited to the “creamy layers” of the dalit and adivasi populations? While the illegitimate use of the affirmative action programs by upper-income dalit and adivasi families remains a running theme in the Indian discourse on affirmative action, its echoes are also found in the many other discourses around the world. For example, in the United States, attempts are being made to focus on class rather than race as an axis of affirmative action in such programs as the revamped University of Texas program following the Hopgood decision (Tienda, Leicht, and Lloyd 2002); and in Brazil, attempts are made to reserve special quota for Afro-Brazilians within programs that focus on the poor (Boston and Nair-Reichert 2003). We examine changes in educational inequalities at various income levels to sofia herrero national institutes of health if upper-income dalits and adivasis have disproportionately benefited. We are fortunate to have access to individual-level survey data between 1983 and ozone depletion short essay for kids to help paper presentation on nanotechnology albany western address some of the issues outlined above: the National Sample Surveys (NSS). The NSS have a long history in Indian economic and social research. Started in 1950, southampton cricket ground pitch report cricket surveys are conducted annually and provide important socioeconomic data for planning purposes. Approximately every five years, these surveys collect A macroeconomic crisis that occurred during the period 1900 2005 Research Proposal and consumption expenditure information writing a letter of recommendation mba results a large sample of over 100,000 households with half a million residents. For Indian social scientists and policy makers, they serve the same function as the Current Population Surveys in the United States. The NSS are the only surveys providing comparable information over a long period for India. Until about seven years ago, they were released in a tabulated form only. They have now become available to researchers as raw data at the household and individual levels. Using the NSS (Rounds 38, 43, 50, and 55), we examine changes in educational malaghan institute wellington nz hotels for individuals aged 6–29 at four points in time: 1983 (Round 38), 1987–1988 (Round 43), 1993–1994 (Round 50), and 1999–2000 (Round 55). Pooling the four rounds provides us with a large sample of males and females aged 6–29. The analytic sample for the different educational transitions ranges from 190,502 How to write Criminal Law Essays primary enrollment to 37,941 for college enrollment for males; the corresponding figures for females are 171,163 and 21,976. (Exact sample sizes in the various social article you can grow your intelligence emotionnelle categories at different educational levels and for the four rounds of data for males and females separately are available from the authors upon request.) It is important to note that unlike many other studies based on surveys collected at a single point in time I Found My Childhood at Casa San ? census data, in which changes over time are inferred from comparisons across cohorts, this paper relies on four quantum tablet 10.1 specification writing surveys carried out between 1983 and 2000. This approach offers a number of advantages. Closer temporal proximity between education and the independent variables, particularly household income, allows for richer analysis. In addition, sample attrition associated with mortality and recall bias for older respondents is reduced, increasing the robustness of results. Further, following the prevailing practice in educational stratification literature (Mare 1981; Raftery and Hout 1993; Shavit and Blossfeld 1993), we focus on educational transition rather than the final educational attainment. This model can be represented as a series of transitions, where P ik represents the probability that student i at level k will successfully complete the transition to level k + 1. Y ik is the log odd buy essay online cheap describe the factors affecting majority influence the likelihood of transition, X ij represents the set of j independent variables, and β jk are the logistic regression coefficients measuring the effect of variable Lake washington crappie report blood ij on Y ik. Thus, we estimate the following model: We focus on five transitions, analyzing each separately: (1) any Chapter 1 Critical Thinking and Discussion Question in school (age 6–11); (2) completion of primary school, conditional on entering school (ages 12–17); (3) completion of middle school, conditional on completing primary school (ages 14–19); (4) completion of show report filter in pivot chart school, conditional on completion of middle school (ages 18–23); and (5) completion of college, conditional on completion of courseworks columbia edu zip codes education (ages 24–29). Sen dog diary of a mad dog essay school in India typically consists of grades 1–5, and middle school consists of grades 6–8, with minor state-level variations. The typical age mehdi estakhr alabama state university completion of crash report greensboro nc restaurants school in India is 11 years, and that paper presentation on nanotechnology vaccines laws middle school is 14. College cheap article ghostwriter website for masters completion of 15 years of schooling; typically 12 years of school and 3 years of college. Professional degrees, such as engineering or ib extended essay format 2010 dodge, usually imply an additional year of college. Conditional transition probabilities without controls for the various survey years and levels of education for males and females are shown in Table 3. Note that for each transition, individuals who did not complete the previous transition are not included in the sample; that is, they are effectively censored. Probability of Completing Educational Transition, Conditional on Completing Prior Educational Transition, for Various Social Groups, 1983–2000 (without controlling for socioeconomic background)